What Is Project Indiana? Explained

05 Oct '07 - 04:34 by benr

What is Indiana? No one seems to know. Some people are excited. Some people are confused. Some people are scared and angry. Why?

What is Indiana? The answer is, "Exactly!"

Not clear enough? Okey, let me explain more in depth. In order to do so, we need to break down some concepts so they are clear and then bring them all together, so bear with me.

Part 1: What is Linux? It's a kernel. But I thought it was a distribution? Er, no, "LInux distributions" are compilations of software which include the Linux kernel, GNU userland, and a bunch of other open source software in order to form a complete OS from this variety of individual peices of software. This is why Richard Stallman pushed for acceptance of the "GNU/Linux" tag, because a minimal installation of a Linux system is made up of the Linux kernel surrounded by dozens or hundreds of GNU programs. Furthermore, GNU software is highly portable and run on every platform imaginable, whether it being *BSD, HP-UX, AIX, Windows, OS X, Solaris, VAX, on and on. Linux needs GNU; GNU doesn't need Linux.

Part 2: What is a distribution? A gathering of various pieces of software, bundled together to form a complete operating environment. Like building a vehicle, they all are diffrent and have different purposes but require the same basic things, a kernel, userland tools, a windowing environment, network utilities, music player, database, etc. Put all the bits in a bag, shake them up and out comes a different distribution catoring to a different group of people. Solaris is a distribution (which I commonly distinguish as "Solaris GA"), OS X is a distribution, Windows is a distribution, Red Hat Linux is a distribution, SuSE is a distribution, FreeBSD is a distribution. Some use similar bits in a different order (Debian & Ubuntu) others are entirely different (Windows and AIX). The various Linux distributions are great example of how hundreds of projects can all be developing independent of any distribution and yet be gather together as one.

Part 3: What is a "developer"? The Linux community has blurred many lines. One of them is the term "developer". A "Linux Developer" and "Java Developer" are very different uses of the same word. In the Linux world sysadmins are developers, savvy end-users are developers, hobbiests are developers, anyone who understands the system reasonably well is a developer, whether they contribute code to Linux or not. How many "Linux Developers" are there? Thousands! How many are working on the Linux Kernel right now? Er, not thousands. Okey, so what is this disparity? Anyone who works within the GNU/Linux eco-system is considered a Linux developer, regardless of whether its related to Linux or not. Is a GTK developer a "Linux developer"? Yes. Does he actually develop on Linux or use it? Not necessarily. Therefore, a "Linux Developer" is any person who influences or participates in something that is part of a "Linux Distribution". More than 95% of the "Linux Developers" aren't working on Linux (the kernel) at all, they are working on building and improving things that are put together to for the eco-system around it.

Part 4: What is "community"? Websters definition 3 is "an interacting population of various kinds of individuals in a common location". Individuals are... individual. Everyone has unique viewpoints, unique values, goals and ambitions. But they huddle together because they love the place in which they live, or they simply find it most complimentary to their life. If people don't like the place or it is no longer complimentary to their life, goals, and ambitions they move. In the free software and open source world we gather around campfires, each throwing one of our sticks (talents) into the fire to help it burn brighter. Quite often because of our diverse personal interests we move periodically from one campfire to another. We may disagree or even dislike our neighbors but we still are compelled to stay in that place because for whatever personal reason we want that fire to burn brightly. Communities grow when people are welcomed, appreciated, and invited to put in their sticks. When they can't or find it difficult, they find a new fire, a new location, a new community.

Part 5: What is order? What is control? Order and control can be used for the forces of good or evil. They can provide the framework within which you can comfortably exist and thrive without concern about those things that you are uninterested about. Those in "power" are those that we (ideally) trust to manage this framework in a way best suited to those within it, by managing that which requires it and allowing individuals to work freely otherwise. Think of an ideal government, they build the roads, provide protection and security through police and firemen, impose certain rules to ensure safety and non-confrentation (speed limits, drug enforcement, fraud protection, legal infrastructure for despute resolution), etc. What they don't do (ideally) is control the things on the sides of those roads, they leave that land open for use by individuals. They may define what you can build or how you can build it, but only so that it doesn't disrupt the community in an adverse way. Order is inforced by those in control, to provide a platform a trust, accountability, and sense of comfort that relieves citizens from unneeded burdens and allows them to focus on their individual needs, goals, and ambitions in the ways in which they see fit.

Part 6: What is transparency? Transparency is working without walls, allowing other interested parties to look in and see what is being done without hiding or distorting the truth. Are each of us expected to Twitter our ever move and decision in order to allow others to see it? No, but it means that when a decision you make has implications for others, good or bad, that you disclose that information into the public domain. When working within a group (community), this takes on a new element of "transparent communication", that is, information is shared between group members openly so that all other members of the group are privy to it. When private communication occurs a sense of distrust and bitterness creeps in and the group become less and less effective. This is particularly tricky when not all members of the group communicate via the same medium. For instance, if some mebers of the group meet for drinks, discuss and decide something and then bring it back to the group there has been no transparency in decision, and simply sharing it publicly has already excluded others from the initial discision, even if they later overturn it. Transparency is about putting everyone on level ground, giving everyone a voice, and collaborating as equals across the board.

Part 7: Solaris is a distribution. OpenSolaris is a community built around the code that makes up that distribution. Understand the separation here! Within the OpenSolaris Community (place in which we live) we have various sub-communities (campfires around which we gather and contribute); while we have influence over the parts that make up Solaris, the distribution, we do not have the ability to influence the distribution itself. You can contribute to ON, our kernel and base system, or JDS, the desktop environment, but you have no control over the eco-system which constitutes Solaris GA.

Lets go into this last point a bit further. One of the greatest strengths of Solaris is its continuity and stability, it doesn't change in any way that isn't backward compatible with prior releases. Sun prides itself on the ability to run SunOS 4.x applications unmodified on the latest releases. You can copy an install of Oracle on Solaris 2.6 to a Solaris 10 system without skipping a beat and thats a real business advantage. In fact, install Solaris 2.6 and Solaris 10 side by side, not much has changed. The underlying technology has evolved by leaps and bounds in each new release, particularly in Solaris 10, but while the underlying technology has evolved it has been constrained by the absolute requirement of backward compatibility, standards compliance, and an eco-system (file formats, paths, interfaces, etc) that won't rock the boat. It is our greatest strength and our greatest weakness. Times have changed, but we've been unwilling (if you judge it a strength) or unable (if you judge it a weakness) to capitalize on them.

To both move forward while not loosing backward compatibility a number of strange things have had to happen, compromises. Many wonder there are multiple versions of the same binary stuffed into strange locations, such as /usr/ucb (SunOS 4.x BSD compatability), /usr/ccs (C Compiler Support), /usr/xpg4 (XPG4 Standards Compliance), /usr/sfw (Sun FreeWare, this year changed to /usr/gnu), etc, all in addition to the normal locations of /usr/bin, /usr/sbin, and /sbin. To maintain the legacy, you can't replace, only supplement. There are crufty bits that exist for no real reason that most people can gather (SAC?) but must remain. This is all compounded by the Solaris installer which doesn't allow you to select packages individually, but rather insists on using very widely defined Meta-Clusters; and because these Meta-Clusters aren't well understood (a secure network install didn't install SSH at one point) most people simply install everything despite only needing a 10th of what they installed.

To keep anything from rocking the boat an elaborate (by F/OSS standards) set of processes and standards were devised and improved over time. The best example of this is the ARC Process (Architecture Review Commitee), whereby as a developer you go through a long series of hoops, paperwork, and meetings to ensure quality, compatibility, and standards compliance. While these processes have been the foundation that has provided us with such unswerving compatibility and integrity, it translates poorly into the F/OSS world of progress by iteration; by driving forward based on action rather than committee review and debate. Within the context of OpenSolaris, this traversing of the hoops can only be accomplished by using the buddy system (peer review is yet another long held part of the process) whereby an internal developer familiar with this maze sponsors you, after having signed your Contributer Agreement, to move toward the ultimate and extraordinary goal of integrating into (a "putback", similar to a CVS commit) the mainline ON repository where it will eventually find its way into a Solaris release for that given component.

While those processes and standards have served us (customers, developers, enthusiasts, etc) well for years they are a significant barrier to code contribution. And, as discussed earlier, the vast majority of "developers" are interested in contributing to the eco-system. Will KDE ever be in Solaris 10/11? No. Will Enlightenment (BEST WM EVER!) ever be in Solaris 10/11? No. Will GNU Make ever be the default? No. Solaris installations are already bloated with things you think you need but don't, and require you to look elsewhere for the things you want. Enter Blastwave or SunFreeWare.com, which add yet another add on location (/opt/csw, /opt/sfw, etc.)

What is Project Indiana? Ambiguity where there is none. Possibility where there is constraint. Openness where there is little or none. A fresh start, on a clean sheet, whereby we can explore the full potential of what Solaris could be, can be, and should be. Its shaking off the shackles that have bound the eco-system, ushering in a new age of contribution, innovation, and possibilities.

Does that mean we forsake our heritage? Absolutely not! As we discussed before with distributions, the same core technology developed independently can be combined together in a variety of ways. ON isn't the problem, the way that its packaged into an eco-system and distributed is! We have the best core technology in the industry and best engineers to boot. But its like we started with a Ford Pinto, and we re-designed and re-engineered and innovated in every part of that car such that not even a Ferrari would challange it.... but it still looked like a damned Pinto! And even though there is a 800BHP engine under the hood, we still slaved to ensure that it continued to drive like a Pinto to avoid confusing Grandma when she goes for groceries. Now consider how people look at us! They want ZFS, but not Solaris. They want our engine but aren't interested in driving a frickin' Pinto. And so I ask you, why are we shocked that there isn't a faster uptake?

What the hell is Indiana? What I want it to be. What you want it to be. What we want it to be. What will it look like? Whatever we want. Its taking our core technology, all that we've learned and created, and putting all those pieces out on the floor of the garage and saying to ourselves: What can we do with this? And then, with a genius grin, building something the likes of which no one has seen before. Oh sure, if someone is really intent on having one of souped up Pinto's we can put all the pieces back into that configuration, they are still a hot commodity, but why in the hell would we ever allow ourselves to think that that is all we can create.

Indiana is re-invigorating the fire of innovation outside of the core technology. Tearing down convention and embracing the future head on. The walls between GNU/Linux and Solaris are paper thin, we only need to have the courage to rip that mother down. It requires faith, vision, and a burning desire to succeed. It reminds me of the old business wisdom in which the fear of firing a bad employee might have a detrimental effect on the company, and always, in hindsight, the executive wonders why they never had the courage to do it sooner.

And is this need for change a surprise to anyone? No! Everyone but everyone (especially engineers at Sun!) has at least 5 things they want changed in Solaris. And so why haven't they? Politics, zealotry, fear... they have worn and worn and worn people into submission; they don't care, its not worth it. And we stagnate, and a little part of us dies. Moral suffers. Complacency creeps a little further in. And where is the voice of change?

We should be ashamed of the fact that it took Ian Murdock to show us what we already knew. Just like in life and in marriages, we hit a road block and it wasn't until an outsider pointed towards a better path that we could gather our courage and make an attempt for change. Who is to blame? All of us, engineers, executives, developers, sysadmins, customers... we all have our fair share of the blame. But the time for blame, finger pointing, and FUD is over; Ian had the audacity to push us, kicking and screaming, towards a better tomorow which new found hope and possibilities, and an eco-system that encourages contribution over convention, customization over constraint.

And if after all that your not convinced, not sure of what this thing called Indiana is, ask yourself this: What will Solaris look like in 2017. Will it look like it does today? Now look back at whats changed outside of our fabulous core technology, at the Solaris distribution, in the last 10 years. Ask yourself, in that context, is there a better way... and is that way just possibly called Indiana.

- - C O M M E N T S - -

I can’t wait to see what they churn out, I am hoping it can be Solaris environment I can get behind to use those great new technologies. Really liking the idea of zones and all that ala what you have setup at joyent

Stuka - 05 October '07 - 11:23

Right on Ben!

It is time we embraced a new path. Rock on OpenSolaris!

Shawn Walker (Email) - 05 October '07 - 13:24

Bit of a long rant there.

I’m eager to see what Indiana is like. There are so many neat things inside the Solaris distribution that I’d like to be able to get out and play with, but it’s hard when there are so many layers of cruft built up around it.

It bothers me that all the defaults in Solaris are “safe”. I learned many neat things in GNU/Linux by installing other distros or unusual packages and being amazed that they had a better, easier way to do something. It allowed for a lot of experimentation with the expertise of the distribution maintainers to back me up and show me the way.

I’m hoping that Indiana can give Solaris some real power of customization without building everything from scratch. Right now there’s just so much momentum behind the way things are that it’s hard to do things your own way.

(p.s. spell-check)

Drew (Email) - 05 October '07 - 17:31

Since you seem to be suggesting that we throw out the review process, then yes, you are indeed forsaking the heritage of Solaris.

I’ve seen (a huge number of times) the kinds of things that get caught during review (ARC, code review, whatever). There’s no way I’d want to live without this safety net.

John Levon (Email) (URL) - 05 October '07 - 18:40

It’s unfortunate how you defined distribution. The term “distribution” is unique to Linux. It’s definitely not used with the BSDs. They develop the userland and kernal as a single unit, which is why it works. From what I know of Solaris, it fits the same mold. I cringe everytime somebody applies the word “distribution” to OpenBSD or FreeBSD. Before I just thought it was ignorance, but it’s going to be reinforced now that it’s in print on a blog.

john (Email) - 05 October '07 - 20:03

Levon: No, ON can still be governed by ARC but that doesn’t have to be imposed upon the resultant distribution. Halting current process on ON/NWS/etc would be a disaster. But why should ARC tell me where ‘gmake’ lives? Why don’t I have a choice in the matter? Indiana provides the flexability to do whats best for me and allows me to choose between “Recommended” and custom.

John: Distribution is a generic term with Linux connentations, which was my point. Solaris is much like BSD whereby the base system utilities are developed together with the kernel (ON is much more than just the Solaris kernel). To say that BSD isn’t a “distribution” is wrong, its just not a flexable one. Any combination of bits that arrives to a customer in a packaged way is a distribution, and there are several distributions of Open/FreeBSD, they are just called “Appliances”.

benr - 05 October '07 - 20:57

As I was reading the post, I was reminded of the tale of the Porche 911 and its decedents. The 911 would never have been designed the way it is today from a blank sheet of paper, and it is a marvel of engineering overcoming structural challenges over time. (e.g the rear engine design effects on handling.) The 944 and 928 were completely new designs that never took off, in part because the handling was too tame and neutral (!?), and they didn’t offer anything radically new in return. Could Indiana suffer the same fate?

Nonetheless, I have to concur that something radical needs to be done with packaging and distribution. However, I think the analogy to the Pinto driving Grandma should be revised somewhat. It’s more like only rocket scientist can figure out how to fully leverage Solaris, and I think sometimes that rocket scientists like it that way.

The issue is more around lowering barriers to entry by hiding some of the complexity involved in using Solaris, while increasing the full utility and power of the operating environment.

There are plenty of interesting things to work on that will keep Solaris compelling while we loose some of the crufty baggage.

Why is clustering and load-balancing a “bolt-on”? If we could get rid of volume management with ZFS, why not eliminate the need for clustering? Why are ISVs tackling the problem of shared state between OS instances (e.g. application server clustering and RAC)? Shouldn’t this be a core operating system facility?

While we are dealing with packaging and patching, I hope we have some bright ideas that leap-frog current solutions the way ZFS, Zones and dtrace have.

Louis F. Springer (Email) (URL) - 06 October '07 - 14:54

P.S. s/decedents/descendants/ in my comment. Sheesh!

Louis F. Springer (Email) (URL) - 06 October '07 - 14:58

Hi Ben,
I think the word distribution is not applied the BSD because there’s only one official version at a time. Yes, I understand your definition of distribution could be applied to OSs like PC-BSD and MidnightBSD, but I still don’t hear it used.

Furthermore, “distribution” is not only has Linux connotations, it has negative connotations because of it. Linux has no choice but to go the route of distributions because nobody controls it as a complete entity. It’s pure anarchy. Many say this anarchy is a key to it’s undeniable success, but it’s also a curse. I think you would choose distributions like you would choose to catch mono. Solaris and BSD are developed correctly. There are aspects of Linux that have merit, and Project Indiana should be focusing on those good bits, but the concept of distributions is not one of those aspects IMHO. Let the Linux zealots have their 400 distributions, they are welcome to them. I prefer the rigid, controlled, professional approach.

john (Email) - 06 October '07 - 15:20


Thank you very much for an excellent post. I’m one of those who would like to know more about the possibilities that Solaris holds. I think the transparency you mentioned might be key. Just 2 quick examples. In the last year I’ve both visited opensolaris.org and received solaris CD’s. In both cases the “pinto look” hasn’t much bothered me, and I’ve felt like I had a key in my hand, but like there were barriers preventing me from getting to the door. So I never got anywhere near the engine – not even the igniiton.

I’m not really fond of the term “distribution.” In the old days we might have called these “integrated systems.” But integrations were mostly done for in-house consumption. So when people started building for public consumption it must have made sense to use a different term. But hearing “Linux distribution” tends to leave me feeling a little confused. Perhaps adding terminology isn’t always helpful?



James Stansell (Email) (URL) - 07 October '07 - 19:08

I use Linux for the most part. I have used older versions Solaris but as a User with no Admin privileges, i.e. I have never installed/configured or otherwise. I plan on trying OpenSolaris or Nextena(sp?). I just have not gotten around to it yet.

As to why distribution isn’t use more common with BSD’s it is every time you see BSD.

Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD, sometimes called Berkeley Unix) is the UNIX derivative distributed by the University of California, Berkeley, starting in the 1970s.

To say BSD Distribution would be redundant at best. The point at all OSes are Distributions is well taken though.

The chaos that is the Linux eco-system, ahh. I find the “natural selection” of things in it to be one of the best things about it. Something is always working its way up to best of breed or at least better than what was there. Some of it people clearing coming up with a “better way” some of it is looking and see others (BSD, etc) did, and some of it is pure chance.

As to having no structure that is plainly untrue. Have you looked at Debian (Redhat, or pick a major distro) it clearly has structure and controls maybe they are not rigid enough for you but to say they are “pure anarchy” is a falsehood.

You say that having 400+ distros is not a good thing and in some ways I agree. I think consolidating to 100-150 would greatly improve things but that said it is the variety that keeps Linux moving forward and targeting specific needs. On many levels this makes Linux more personnel than the alternatives in my limited experience.


Lastly, it seems there is a lot of malice toward Linux in general, and sure it runs the other way to. In the past and recently misunderstandings or whatever you call it (I stopped reading after the first 25 or so messages in both cases.) Prevent us from attain our true goal of giving the Users more choice and freedom.

Joshua L. Blocher (Email) - 07 October '07 - 22:34

Ben: being able to configure different “environments” is interesting, certainly, but quite different from the “progress by iteration” you’re describing, which appears to be review-less
aggregation of software bits.

FWIW, the absence of all sorts of free software isn’t a consequence of the review process as you seem to think. It’s a matter of priorities, politics, and resources. If those are changing, great, but it has nothing to do with the review process.

John Levon (Email) (URL) - 08 October '07 - 00:27

To John Levon:

I’m not disputing that individual linux distributions have structure. Each one seems to have defined the structure they want, making it impossible to use the package from one linux on another. I’m aware that some entity tried to define a “standard base” but appears to have failed. So even if you got your dreeam of 100 – 150 distributions, you would have 100 – 150 different operating systems, not one. So when I say “structure” I mean standardization across the board. If such a standardization was applied, you would probably lose about 200 distributions right off the bat, and good riddance.

Why are multiple distributions needs for an identical kernel? I can understand customized kernels for dedicated tasks (e.g. embedded systems) and a distribution for that is justified, but you can have too much choice. Having dozens of userland configuration options with the same kernel is just …. not a good idea.

Before trying BSD, I tried Linux first. It seems many BSD users used Linux as a stepping stone and realized there was better stuff out there. I started on Red Hat 8, immediately learned about dependency hell. I tried SuSE 8.0, never could get it installed on modern hardware. the system was constantly getting corrupted when I upgraded software. I understand the get-apt system works a bit better, but the fact at the time was applications were not compatible across linux systems. It was chaos. I know the “survival of the fitist” argument, I just don’t subscribe to it. And dropping from 400 to 100 doesn’t the “choice” any less absurd.

So count me in the “nervous” category regarding project Indiana. I want Sun to be the benevolent dictators. Listen to crowds about what people want, but in the end the decision needs to be made by one entity that sees the big picture and is concerned about backwards compatibility.

John - 13 October '07 - 08:56

Solaris is the product of brilliant engineers and great a vision. Given recent developments, it may be the most advanced operating system available. However, its popular image is dependent on two things; the level of public awareness of its existence, and a person’s preexisting perception of UNIX.

To form an opinion about something, one must know it exists. That, quite unfortunately, narrows the scope down substantially. Furthermore, of those who have heard of it, a very high percentage have heard of UNIX. This is why I find the pinto analogy so wrong. UNIX isn’t known as being easy to drive. Grandma, to borrow from your example, couldn’t even see over the dash. Those who can, are able to see that they didn’t just step into an unstable econobox. If the suped-up pinto is supposed to be Solaris, who is grandma supposed to represent, the enterprise market with which Solaris has a symbiotic relationship with? Do you really think it is wise to drop them along with backward compatibility?

The way I see it, keeping backward compatibility is more about guaranteed operational stability, removing a large barrier to entry commonly faced in enterprise migration is just gravy. Grandma can upgrade without fear. It is also important to realize that logically speaking, it doesn’t matter how great something is if nobody adopts it. Therefore, encouraging adoption is the best course of action.

If you’re afraid of its legacy stifling innovation, take a look at ZFS to soothe your troubled mind. Have faith. As long as OpenSolaris doesn’t branch out into thousands of flavors like Linux, it’ll have a unified direction. And if that direction is managed by great minds and experienced hands, Solaris will continue to deliver.

George - 26 October '07 - 21:23

The one thing Solaris does have that Linux NEVER_WILL: Guaranteed Binary Compatibility!!!

Take that away and goodbye Solaris. A better idea is to form a new baseline (starting point) for [a new] binary compatibility.

Linux binaries break throughout upgrades, few years forward upon new release. In 2001, already complaints occurring re: pre-2k apps breakage. In 2003, mass floods of breakage (i.e. LOKI et. al).

Still, Joe-Windows-User runs apps nearly two decades old (Windows 3.x), ok this is on 2001 [XP] o.s., yet the point still exists.

You seem to believe it is not only possible (which it is), but necessary (it’s not always) to start from scratch with no absolute BCL guarantee.

Such thinking is the current vogue, and it’s not just naive it’s absurd. This notion only ‘works’ in a person’s mind when source-only; further it takes value away from the individual, and gives it to some analogous group. It reduces the individual’s independence, making them dependent upon the group. This form of thinking is called socialism. [Not to be political, but that’s what it is.]

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