In Part 1 we discussed core analysis in general and some basic mdb commands for high level investigation. When you dig deeper things can get confusing and complex because everything is referenced by address. This is where the Solaris Crash Analysis Tool comes in.
Solaris CAT has been around for a long time, but only as of version 5.0 released on June 18th of this year has it been available for Solaris X86/X64. You can find the Solaris CAT 5.0 Release Notes here.
To get started, download CAT 5.0, uncompress and install the package:
# bunzip2 SUNWscat5.0-GA-i386.pkg.bz2 # pkgadd -G -d ./SUNWscat5.0-GA-i386.pkg The following packages are available: 1 SUNWscat Solaris Crash Analysis Tool (5.0 GA SV4622M) (i386) 5.0 Select package(s) you wish to process (or 'all' to process all packages). (default: all) [?,??,q]: 1 Processing package instance
from Solaris Crash Analysis Tool (5.0 GA SV4622M)(i386) 5.0 ...
The package will, by default, install into /opt/SUNWscat. There are two binaries we’re really interested in, found in the bin/ directory: scat and blast. The scat tool is the CLI interface to Solaris CAT and provides a shell which is a human friendly re-implementation of mdb (no “::” prefixing commands, etc.) The blast tool is a really nice Java GUI interface to the CLI which adds a lot of “just click here” functionality and is excellent for testing and playing around. I highly recommend you point your browser at /opt/SUNWscat/docs/index.html, which includes some minimal but extremely useful HTML documentation.
Authors note: I’m resisting a “scat” joke with amazing strength. Seriously… resisting…. so…. hard….
We’ll focus on the CLI here. Invocation is a little unusual; add /opt/SUNWscat/bin to your path and then change to the directory containing your dumps (usual /var/crash/hostname/), for the .0 dumps use “scat 0″, for the .1 dumps use “scat 1″, and so on. You’ll fine the “online help” within the CLI exceptional, lets look:
# export PATH=$PATH:/opt/SUNWscat/bin # cd /var/crash/ev2-r01-s10/ # ls -l total 14205330 -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 2 Aug 25 07:49 bounds -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1444762 Aug 25 07:43 unix.0 -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 7268106240 Aug 25 07:49 vmcore.0 # scat 0 Solaris[TM] CAT 5.0 for Solaris 11 64-bit x86 SV4622M, Jul 3 2008 Copyright © 2008 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All rights reserved. Use is subject to license terms. Feedback regarding the tool should be sent to SolarisCAT_Feedback@Sun.COM Visit the Solaris CAT blog at http://blogs.sun.com/SolarisCAT opening unix.0 vmcore.0 ...dumphdr...symtab...core...done loading core data: modules...symbols...ctftype: unknown type struct panic_trap_info CTF...done core file: /var/crash/xxxxxxxx/vmcore.0 user: Super-User (root:0) release: 5.11 (64-bit) version: snv_67 machine: i86pc node name: xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx system type: i86pc hostid: xxxxxxxx dump_conflags: 0x10000 (DUMP_KERNEL) on /dev/dsk/c0t0d0s1(24.0G) time of crash: Mon Aug 25 07:41:00 GMT 2008 (core is 13 days old) age of system: 91 days 22 hours 49 minutes 50.97 seconds panic CPU: 1 (8 CPUs, 31.9G memory) panic string: page_free pp=ffffff0007243bd8, pfn=11228e, lckcnt=0, cowcnt=0 slckcnt = 0 sanity checks: settings...vmem... WARNING: FSS thread 0xffffff097d1e3400 on CPU2 using 99%CPU WARNING: FSS thread 0xffffff09fddbab40 on CPU3 using 99%CPU sysent...clock...misc... NOTE: system has 54 non-global zones done SolarisCAT(vmcore.0/11X)>
When CAT is unleashed on a dump several “sanity checks” are run which can point out glaring known issues. There is an HTML document in the docs/ directory which outlines all the various sanity checks. These checks alone make CAT a must-have tool! Sanity check output will come in two varieties, “WARNING” which indicates something out of whack that may have been the cause or contributor to the crash, and “NOTE” which is unlikely the cause but of interest. We can see in the example above two warnings telling me that 2 threads were consuming 99% of a CPU… thats handy! It also notes that I’m running 54 zones.
The available commands a broken down into categories which you can see using the “help” command. The first group are for “Initial Investigation:” and include: analyze, coreinfo, msgbuf, panic, stack, stat, and toolinfo. Lets look at the “analyze” commands output:
SolarisCAT(vmcore.0/11X)> analyze core file: /var/crash/xxxxxx/vmcore.0 user: Super-User (root:0) release: 5.11 (64-bit) version: snv_67 machine: i86pc node name: xxxxxx system type: i86pc hostid: xxxxx dump_conflags: 0x10000 (DUMP_KERNEL) on /dev/dsk/c0t0d0s1(24.0G) time of crash: Mon Aug 25 07:41:00 GMT 2008 (core is 13 days old) age of system: 91 days 22 hours 49 minutes 50.97 seconds panic CPU: 1 (8 CPUs, 31.9G memory) panic string: page_free pp=ffffff0007243bd8, pfn=11228e, lckcnt=0, cowcnt=0 slckcnt = 0 ==== panic thread: 0xfffffffef4ce5dc0 ==== CPU: 1 ==== ==== panic user (LWP_SYS) thread: 0xfffffffef4ce5dc0 PID: 10156 on CPU: 1 ==== cmd: /opt/local/sbin/httpd -k start t_procp: 0xffffffff06595e50 p_as: 0xffffffff093490e0 size: 47374336 RSS: 3125248 hat: 0xffffffff092a9480 cpuset: 1 zone: address translation failed for zone_name addr: 8 bytes @ 0x3 t_stk: 0xffffff00486bcf10 sp: 0xffffff00486bc880 t_stkbase: 0xffffff00486b8000 t_pri: 3(FSS) pctcpu: 0.380035 t_lwp: 0xfffffffefe61ab60 lwp_regs: 0xffffff00486bcf10 mstate: LMS_SYSTEM ms_prev: LMS_SYSTEM ms_state_start: 2 minutes 31.229022230 seconds earlier ms_start: 2 minutes 31.343582414 seconds earlier psrset: 0 last CPU: 1 idle: 0 ticks (0 seconds) start: Mon Aug 25 07:41:00 2008 age: 0 seconds (0 seconds) syscall: #131 memcntl(, 0x0) () tstate: TS_ONPROC - thread is being run on a processor tflg: T_PANIC - thread initiated a system panic T_DFLTSTK - stack is default size tpflg: TP_MSACCT - collect micro-state accounting information tsched: TS_LOAD - thread is in memory TS_DONT_SWAP - thread/LWP should not be swapped TS_RUNQMATCH pflag: SMSACCT - process is keeping micro-state accounting SMSFORK - child inherits micro-state accounting pc: unix:vpanic_common+0x13b: addq $0xf0,%rsp unix:vpanic_common+0x13b() unix:panic+0x9c() unix:page_free+0x22e() unix:page_destroy+0x100() genunix:fs_dispose+0x2e() genunix:fop_dispose+0xdc() genunix:pvn_getdirty+0x1f0() zfs:zfs_putpage+0x129() genunix:fop_putpage+0x65() genunix:segvn_sync+0x39f() genunix:as_ctl+0x1f2() genunix:memcntl+0x709() unix:_syscall32_save+0xbf() -- switch to user thread's user stack --
This output provides a vast array of useful details, including:
- System summary, including OS release and version, architecture, hostname, and hostid; as well as number of CPU’s and memory
- Time of crash and previous uptime (“age of system”)
- The panic string and CPU that it occurred on
- The thread that caused the panic and its details, including the command (argc &argv), its memory footprint (size & rss), and zone
- The threads state information, run time, start time, current syscall
- The call stack
As noted in Part 1, what most people are really looking for when doing core analysis is to determine which application was responsable, and this output provides that data in great clarity. Lets dig into it a bit more explicitly… based on the above “analyze” output we can see that….
- The system is an 8CPU X86 box running snv_67 (Solaris Nevada Build 67) in 64bit mode with 32GB of RAM.
- System crashed on Aug 25th at 7:41AM GMT, it was previously up for 91 days
- System paniced on “page_free” call, on CPU 1
- The running thread was “httpd -k start”… an Apache worker process.
- The process had the PID 10156, consumed 3.1MB of Physical Memory (RSS) and had a virtual size of 47MB
- The process was using less than 1% (pctcpu) of CPU 1, was using the Fair Share Scheduler (FSS), on Processor Set (psrset) 0.
- The process started on Aug 25th at 7:41AM GMT, it was 0 seconds old when it crashed… possibly a forked worker gone bad.
For many administrators this might be as much as you wanted to know, right there. But lets look at a couple more commands.
You’ll recall that during the sanity checks at startup it noted 2 threads consuming full CPU’s. We can feed the thread address to the “thread” command to get details on them:
SolarisCAT(vmcore.0/11X)> thread 0xffffff097d1e3400 ==== user (LWP_SYS) thread: 0xffffff097d1e3400 PID: 27446 on CPU: 2 ==== cmd: nano svn-commit.tmp t_procp: 0xffffffff2e908ab0 p_as: 0xffffffff10402ee0 size: 2772992 RSS: 1642496 hat: 0xffffffff102f6b48 cpuset: 2 zone: address translation failed for zone_name addr: 8 bytes @ 0x2 t_stk: 0xffffff004e47ef10 sp: 0xffffff003d3fcf08 t_stkbase: 0xffffff004e47a000 t_pri: 26(FSS) pctcpu: 99.306175 t_lwp: 0xffffffff202a78b0 lwp_regs: 0xffffff004e47ef10 mstate: LMS_SYSTEM ms_prev: LMS_USER ms_state_start: 2 minutes 31.228983791 seconds earlier ms_start: 39 days 19 hours 11 minutes 8.989252296 seconds earlier psrset: 0 last CPU: 2 idle: 9 ticks (0.09 seconds) start: Wed Jul 16 12:30:07 2008 age: 3438653 seconds (39 days 19 hours 10 minutes 53 seconds) syscall: #98 sigaction(, 0x0) () tstate: TS_ONPROC - thread is being run on a processor tflg: T_DFLTSTK - stack is default size tpflg: TP_TWAIT - wait to be freed by lwp_wait TP_MSACCT - collect micro-state accounting information tsched: TS_LOAD - thread is in memory TS_DONT_SWAP - thread/LWP should not be swapped TS_RUNQMATCH pflag: SMSACCT - process is keeping micro-state accounting SMSFORK - child inherits micro-state accounting pc: unix:panic_idle+0x23: jmp -0x2 (unix:panic_idle+0x23) unix:panic_idle+0x23() 0xffffff003d3fcf60() -- error reading next frame @ 0x0 --
So using the “thread” command we can get full granularity on a given thread. In fact, using the “tlist” command you can dump this information for every thread on the system at the time of crash.
Another nifty command is “tunables”. This will display the “current value” (at time of the dump) and the default value. If someone’s been experimenting on the production systems this will clue you in.
SolarisCAT(vmcore.0/11X)> tunables Tunable Name Current Default Value Units Description Value physmem 8386375 * pages Physical memory installed in system. freemem 376628 * pages Available memory. avefree 338943 * pages Average free memory in the last 30 seconds .........
Using the “dispq” command we can look at the dispatch queues (run queue). This answers “what other processes were running on CPU at the time of the crash”, again, using the thread address we can dig into them with “thread”:
SolarisCAT(vmcore.0/11X)> dispq CPU thread pri PID cmd 0 @ 0xfffffffffbc26bb0 0xffffff003d005c80 -1 (idle) pri 60 -=> 0xffffff004337dc80 60 0 sched 1 @ 0xfffffffec6634000 P 0xfffffffef4ce5dc0 P 3 10156 /opt/local/sbin/httpd -k start 2 @ 0xfffffffec662f000 0xffffff097d1e3400 26 27446 nano svn-commit.tmp 3 @ 0xfffffffec66f4800 0xffffff09fddbab40 25 21329 java -jar xxxxx.jar --ui=console 4 @ 0xfffffffec66ea800 0xffffff003d414c80 -1 (idle) pri 60 -=> 0xffffff0048b12c80 60 0 sched 5 @ 0xfffffffec6770800 0xffffff003d4b0c80 -1 (idle) 6 @ 0xfffffffec6770000 0xffffff003d53bc80 -1 (idle) 7 @ 0xfffffffec6762000 0xffffff003d58fc80 -1 (idle) part thread pri PID cmd 0 @ 0xfffffffffbc4eef0
There are far too many to go through in a blog entry… but lets look at my personal favorite, “zfs”. The “zfs” command can show us the pool(s), their configuration, read/write/checksum/error stats, and even ARC stats!
SolarisCAT(vmcore.0/11X)> zfs -e ZFS spa @ 0xfffffffec6c21540 Pool name: zones State: ACTIVE VDEV Address State Aux Description 0xfffffffec0a9e040 FAULTED - root READ WRITE FREE CLAIM IOCTL OPS 0 0 0 0 0 BYTES 0 0 0 0 0 EREAD 0 EWRITE 0 ECKSUM 0 VDEV Address State Aux Description 0xfffffffec0a9eac0 FAULTED - /dev/dsk/c0t1d0s0 READ WRITE FREE CLAIM IOCTL OPS 74356305 578263155 0 0 0 BYTES 757G 10.4T 0 0 0 EREAD 0 EWRITE 0 ECKSUM 0 SolarisCAT(vmcore.0/11X)> zfs arc ARC (Adaptive Replacement Cache) Stats: hits 77708247444 misses 1930348 demand_data_hits 74303514929 demand_data_misses 1325511 demand_metadata_hits 620388795 demand_metadata_misses 160708 prefetch_data_hits 1361651307 ....
I hope this helps you get an idea of how easy it is to really dig deeply into your core dumps using Solaris CAT to hide the oddities of mdb from you. Its a powerful and robust tool, and I’m glad that we have it.
Happy dump divin’! You’ll be amazed how much you’ll learn about your system.